Art Medal

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The Medal Maker (Part 4 of 4)

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1960s silver robert e lee medallic art high relief medal
$31.00
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spirit of america 999 silver art medal 9 11 usa patriot round 1 oz ah327
$33.00
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world trade center 999 silver art medal 9 11 god bless america 1 oz ah328
$33.00
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1971 lincoln mint the legacy of john f kennedy proof silver art medal unopened
$99.99
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1971 lincoln mint the legacy of john f kennedy proof silver art medal unopened
$99.99
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1973 drovers country 999 silver art bar medal ingot 1 oz switzerland aa677
$85.00
quality

us air force usaf 1 troy oz 999 silver art medal round bullion
$29.95
quality

for your anniversary 2015 love birds 999 silver art medal round 1 oz troy
$28.00
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merry christmas santas list 2015 art medal 999 silver ingot bar 1 oz bullion
$28.00
quality

bjstamps apollo 12 xii 999 fine silver medallic art co 452 oz1969 moon
$180.00
quality

2016 year of the monkey 999 silver shield art medal 1 oz troy jr568
$29.00
quality

chicago skyline 999 silver art medal round 1 oz troy mid states recycling
$27.00
quality

mothers day 1973 art bar 999 silver medal ingot 1 oz troy sab af406
$34.95
quality

1966 patrick henry 1736 1799 medallic art co ny 999 silver medal 195 oz m3
$67.49
quality

1968 james kent 1763 1847 medallic art co ny 999 silver medal 208 oz m3
$71.24
quality

1994 super bowl xxviii georgia dome atlanta 2 ounce silver art medal plus extra
$59.99
quality

1972 74 franklin mint art donovan pro football silver art medal
$20.00
quality

1969 silver richard nixon inaugural medallic art co high relief 4725 oz medal
$125.00
quality

1968 illinois sesquicentennial medallic art co ny 999 silver medal 406 oz
$129.99
quality

1970 sir robert peel lions six corp silver art medal 1 troy ounce e1872
$97.00
quality

1974 happy new year 999 silver art medal ingot bar 1 oz troy madison ad237
$34.95
quality

welcome baby 999 silver art medal bear blocks 1 oz round bullion sab
$29.95
quality

welcome baby 2016 art medal 999 silver round newborn birth 1 oz
$29.00
quality

happy birthday 2016 art bar 999 fine silver medal ingot 1 oz troy
$28.00
quality

1995 alaska mint goldpanner proof medallion silver art medal e4703
$147.00
quality

god grant me serenity prayer 999 silver art medal round 1 oz troy sab
$29.95
quality

new orleans 999 silver art bar medal ingot 1 oz troy bullion sh252
$40.00
quality

1732 1982 george washington 250th anniversary 1 oz 999 silver proof art medal
$39.99
quality

bjstamps 1966 sterling silver gemini space flt memorial art medal pf
$39.00
quality

1928 rolls royce phantom i a 2oz silver art medal 999 fs hamilton mint 1976
$67.99
quality

easter 1975 art bar 999 silver ingot medal baby chicks 1 oz troy sab af428
$36.00
quality

god grant me serenity prayer 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art medal round coin 1oz
$31.00
quality

silver art round 999 whistlers mother 1972 hamilton mint coin tocken medal
$19.99
quality

alligator everglades national park 1972 vintage medallic art bronze coin rare
$29.95
quality

turkey smoky mountains national park 1979 vintage maco art bronze coin rare
$29.95
quality

1987 pandas two troy oz silver art medal p2361
$147.00
quality

1987 china balance of tyranny two troy oz silver art medal p2360
$147.00
quality

1969 exploration of the moon apollo 12 999 fine silver medal art round
$100.00
quality

merry christmas 1985 art bar 999 silver holiday ingot medal 1 oz sab ku291
$36.00
quality

coin a rama city 999 silver art bar medal 1 oz troy hawthorne sab ku284
$35.00
quality

merry christmas happy new year 999 silver art medal round 1 oz sh251
$35.00
quality

medallic arts co apollo 11 july 20 1969 44 troy oz 999 fine silverkennedy
$87.00
quality

1998 enviromint san diego padres nl champions silver art medals proof set e0355
$277.88
quality

president roosevelt 999 silver art medal round 1 oz troy ku716
$34.95
quality

new handy harman bi metal commemorative medallion by medallic art company
$39.99
quality

tom kite hof 2004 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2178
$97.00
quality

nick price hof 2003 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2179
$97.00
quality

raymond floyd hof 1989 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2180
$97.00
quality

gary player hof 1974 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2201
$97.00
quality

gene sarazen hof 1974 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2202
$97.00
quality

billy casper hof 1978 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2203
$97.00
quality

byron nelson hof 1974 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2204
$97.00
quality

nick faldo hof 1997 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2205
$97.00
quality

byron nelson hof 1974 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2206
$97.00
quality

hale irwin hof 1992 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2207
$97.00
quality

raymond floyd hof 1989 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2208
$97.00
quality

camel joe 1913 999 silver art medal round 1 oz
$33.00
quality

gene sarazen hof 1974 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2209
$97.00
quality

hale irwin hof 1992 pga tour partners club silver art medal a2210
$97.00
quality

ronald w reagan our great president silver art medal d9159
$117.00
quality

1968 food for peace freedom from hunger silver art medal d9161
$97.00
quality

1881 cc morgan one dollar reproduction copy silver art medal d9180
$57.00
quality

1882 cc morgan one dollar reproduction copy silver art medal d9204
$57.00
quality

1883 cc morgan one dollar reproduction copy silver art medal d9202
$57.00
quality

1981 world wide mint american eagle silver art medal d9169
$77.00
quality

1998 michael jordan five time nba mvp 24kt gp silver art medal ser 0015 d9164
$147.00
quality

2004 estados unidos mexicanos silver art medal d9150
$117.00
quality

silvertowne liberty eagle half dollar reproduction silver art medal d9172
$57.00
quality

silvertowne liberty eagle half dollar reproduction silver art medal d9173
$57.00
quality

silvertowne liberty eagle half dollar reproduction silver art medal d9174
$57.00
quality

silvertowne liberty eagle half dollar reproduction silver art medal d9175
$57.00
quality

1976 franklin mint krewe of olympia mardi gras 24kt egp silver art medal e4622
$117.00
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silvertowne liberty eagle half dollar reproduction silver art medal d9176
$57.00
quality

1981 world wide mint american eagle silver art medal d9165
$77.00
quality

1981 world wide mint american eagle silver art medal d9207
$47.00
quality

1986 love token silver art medal d9163
$77.00
quality

1990 american airlines inaugural silver art medal d9153
$177.00
quality

medallic art co ny 999 silver 440 troy oz 2 israel 1973 art rounds lot n 225
$129.00
quality

1981 world wide mint american eagle silver art medal d9205
$47.00
quality

1981 world wide mint american eagle silver art medal d9206
$47.00
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1981 world wide mint american eagle silver art medal d9208
$47.00
quality


french bronze art nouveau medal lexposition de paris 1900 by george lemaire
$120.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal
$25.00
quality

belgian art bronze medal maeterlinck 1931 by charpentier
$95.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal peter benoit 1923 by alph mauquoy
$55.00
quality

belgian art bronze medal antwerp castel het steen by tramaux 1961
$35.00
quality

belgian art bronze medal emile verhaeren 1855 1916 by jabriquemont
$55.00
quality

belgian bronze art nouveau medal lexposition universelle gand by sinia 1913
$145.00
quality

french bronze art medal hans memling c1968 by claude emmel
$135.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal brabo antwerp c1920
$55.00
quality

belgian art nouveau bronze medal schelde vrij by alph mauquoy 1913
$55.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal hubert jean van eyck c1970 signed
$95.00
quality

rare belgian bronze art medal mercator c1975 41 100 by joseph kapitz
$160.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal constant permeke by franois horn 1973
$135.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal exposition international danvers 1930 alph mauquoy
$125.00
quality

belgian bronze art medal reconnaissance sympathie 1904 1929 by gdevreese
$60.00
quality

french bronze art medal press papier 1989 calendar calendrier by levet
$135.00
quality

1961 heraldic arts battle of tippecanoe sc50c ms68
$89.00
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be my valentine 1974 art bar 999 fine silver medal 1 oz great lake mint
$28.50
quality

french pendant rooster coq art deco nouveau contest shooting medal
$24.99
quality

french copper medal rooster cockerel cock coq 1891 art deco nouveau by
$29.99
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french large medal marianne woman female rooster art deco by ontaux
$49.99
quality

french large medal rooster coq 1938 art deco nouveau par delamarre
$34.99
quality

french medal woman marianne france gallia female and man art nouveau
$24.99
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french medal woman marianne france female liberty art nouveau by turin
$59.99
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french medal woman marianne france gallia female helmet athena art nouveau
$24.99
quality

art nuveau jeanne darc medal get it now
$175.00
quality

french large medal abraham lincoln 1804 1865 art nouveau by delannoy
$69.99
quality

french medal woman marianne france gallia female art nouveau by oudine
$29.99
quality

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History Of Murano Glass by Kevin Grinberg

The origins of glassmaking in Venice go back to the times of the Roman Empire when molded glass was used for illumination in bathhouses. Blending Roman experience with the skills learned from the Byzantine Empire and trade with the Orient, Venice emerged as a prominent glass-manufacturing center as early as the 8th century. One of the earliest furnaces for glass on a Venetian island, dating from the 8th century, was discovered by archaeologists in 1960.

By the late 1200s, the production of glass objects of the finest quality was the city’s major industry as confirmed by the establishment of the Glassmakers Guild that laid out rules and regulations for the craftsmen. The purpose of the guild was to safeguard the secrets of the trade and ensure the profitability of the industry. In line with these objectives, a 1271 law prohibited the importation of foreign glass or the employment of foreign glassworkers.

An even more radical law was passed in 1291 that laid the ground for the establishment of Murano as a premier glass-manufacturing center. This law required that all furnaces used for glassmaking be moved from Venice to Murano to avoid the risk of fire from the furnaces spreading onto the largely wooden structures of overpopulated Venice. Many historians agree that the true motive for this law was to isolate the glass craftsmen to a location where they wouldn’t be able to disclose trade secrets. A subsequent law passed in 1295 forbidding the glassmakers from leaving the city confirms this theory.

Artisans working in the glass trade were well rewarded for their efforts. They had a privileged social status, and their daughters were allowed to marry into the wealthiest and noblest of Venetian families. By applying this clever approach, Venetian government ensured that the glassmakers encouraged their offspring to carry on the trade, and that trade secrets stayed in the families and fueled creative processes leading to innovation and further success. This, along with Venice’s convenient location at the crossroads of trade between East and West, gave Venice monopoly power in manufacturing and selling quality glass throughout Europe that lasted for centuries.

15th and 16th Centuries and the Full Bloom of Glass Making

Venetian glass reached the peak of its popularity in the 15th and 16th centuries. In the 15th century, master Angelo Barovier discovered the process for producing clear glass - (cristallo) - that allowed Murano glassmakers to become the only producers of mirrors in Europe. In addition, the popularity of Chinese porcelain among European nobility fueled discovery and production of the white glass mimicking porcelain (lattimo).

Other types of glassmaking techniques became popular such as enamelling and gilding glass, which originated in the Middle East, filigrana glass which is made using glass rods with inner threads of white, golden or colored glass that are twisted or intersecting, and ice glass which appears finely crackled. Variety of shapes and colors increased, and glassware became more sophisticated though the beauty was still viewed as the simplicity of shapes and ornaments.

17th Century and the Slow Decline of Venetian Glass

Starting from the 17th century, Murano glass entered the period of gradual decline. As Venetian power grip on trade routes and its importance as a major center of commerce began to vanish, so did its monopoly power in glassmaking. New centers of the craft emerged in Bohemia, England, and France. Yet 17th century still saw innovation in Murano glass as new techniques continued to emerge driven by strong baroque trends that spread through European architecture, painting, interior decoration, and other art and craft forms.

Brightly colored, intricate glass decorations with floral and animal motives became popular. New glass techniques included avventurina (metal flecks embedded in glass for a sparkly look) and calcedonio (illusion of semiprecious stones), raised decorations on glass, and millefiori beads. These new techniques were so successful that even royal courts ordered glassware from Murano artisans. One example is King Frederick IV of Denmark who in early 17th century purchased a glass collection that is currently on display at the Rosenborg Palace in Copenhagen.
18th and19th Centuries - The Fall and the Rise

In the 18th century, the decline continued and was aggravated by worsening political climate and increased competition from the glassmakers in Bohemia and France. Some new techniques were introduced, such as engraving on glassware and mirrors, but they did not make visible impact. The industry shrunk drastically with Napoleon’s conquest of Venice in 1797 and his abolishment of all of Venice’s guilds, including the Glassmakers.

In 1814, the transfer of Venice from France to the Habsburg Empire spelled the ultimate death sentence to Murano glassmaking as Habsburg rulers preferred their native glassmaking center in Bohemia and passed laws making it prohibitively expensive to bring necessary raw materials into Murano and export the final product. As a result, almost half of the 24 furnaces that existed in Murano in 1800 shut down by 1820, and only 5 furnaces continued to produce blown glass. However, against all odds, the industry didn’t die completely ? it was kept alive by the artisans’ personal dedication to their centuries-old craft and their father’s hard work that once made Murano glass world famous.

The breakthrough came in 1854 when six Toso Brothers opened the firm Fratelli Toso that initially produced household glass items and window panes but then switched to reviving forgotten techniques of the past. Five years later, Antonio Salviati came to Venice from Vicenza where he practiced law to open a factory dedicated to production of traditional Murano glass. He saw an opportunity to revive the craft by producing tiles that could be used to restore old Venetian mosaics, and he hired the best Murano masters to work in his factory. One of his glassblowers, Lorenzo Radi, spent much time during Austrian rule rediscovering the old methods and techniques that were used to create old Venetian mosaics.

Salviati’s plan worked, and Venetian authorities soon signed a fifteen-year contract with his firm for restoration of the mosaics in St.Mark’s basilica. At around the same time, in 1861, Venice mayor Antonio Colleoni and abbot Vincenzo Zanetti decided to compile an archive dedicated to the history of Venice containing not only various writings but also objects of art produced in the city. Gathering of the objects for the archive caused renewed interest in Venice’s history, its past glory, and its famous crafts including glassmaking. This in turn prompted officials to set up a school for glassmakers where they were able to learn again the forgotten techniques and secrets of the craft.

The culminating event in reviving Murano glassblowing was the exhibition set up by the Archive in 1864 to display all the recent glass works and reignite competitive spirit among the craftsmen. On the heels of that exhibition were other international shows, such as the highly successful Universal Exposition in Paris in 1867 where Salviati exhibited over 500 works made by his firm and received international acclaim and multiple medals. This success and publicity led to complete revival of Murano, which once again became a booming economic center, employing 3,500 people by 1869, and a famous destination.
20th Century - New Identity and the Art of Murano Glass

In the beginning of the 20th century, the master glassmakers of Murano were still enamored with reproducing classical styles and rediscovering ancient techniques, which was evident at Murano and Venice Exhibition of Choice Glass and Glass Objects staged in 1895 inside Murano City Hall. The rules of the exhibition dictated that the works showcased be reproductions of antique glassware. This important event was well attended by international collectors and glass admirers who greatly appreciated the works rooted in unique Murano tradition.

The best works of Murano artists were on display; many were a product of an important glassmaking technique called Murrino (mosaic), which was rediscovered at the end of the 19th century by Vittorio Zuffi while working for Fratelli Toso. This technique originally emerged in the 16th century in an effort to imitate ancient Roman vases. Murano’s famous firm Artisti Barovier received the Honorary Diploma and the Gold Medal. Other artists enjoying popularity in Murano at the time were Salviati, Testolini, and The Toso Brothers (Fratelli Toso).

The year 1895 was also the time of the first Venice Biennial exhibition where new works of art in avant-garde and art nouveau styles were showcased. This highlighted the gap between the modern trends gaining strength in Europe at the time and the works of Murano artisans who were deeply attached to the styles and methods of the past. This gap became even more obvious at the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1900, followed by Expositions of Decorative Arts in Turin in 1902 and Milan in 1906. Some Murano artisans, like Vittorio Toso Borella, became receptive to the new winds blowing on the art scene and started to produce works in art nouveaustyle. Though he originally got mixed reviews for the works he exhibited at Ca’ Pesaro in 1909, Vittorio went on to produce masterpieces that later became universally appreciated. Ca’ Pesaro, unlike Venice Biennial, became an exhibition embracing new artistic trends and showcasing many works in art vouveau style by young artists such as Gino Rossi, Arturo Martini, and Guido Marussig. One of the artists, Vittorio Zecchin, collaborated extensively with Artisti Barovier to create designs for their famous glassware.

In the 1920s, art nouveau slowly got replaced by more modern styles with simpler, cleaner, and more functional designs. Art deco took the center stage and with it came less decorated objects with softer lines and more focus on glassware as part of interior design, not a piece of art in and of itself. A new company, Vetri Soffiati Muranesi Capellin Venini, founded in 1921 under Vittorio Zecchin as its head designer became the champion of this style.

A little later, in the late 1920s to early 1930s, another important trend arose in Murano led by Maestri Vetrai Muranesi Capellin & Co. and Vetreria Artistica Barovier. The trend was glass animals, which remain popular even today. Other important innovations championed in 1930s and continued in early 1940s were production of glass statues of female nudes and classical figures of boxers and gods, engraving on glass, modern lighting fixtures, perfectly proportioned transparent glass tableware, and the invention of vetro sommerso ? a technique allowing to produce thick glassware with one color on the outside and another on the inside.

During World War II the industry did not thrive, but as soon as the war was over the glass masters of Murano returned to their art and created pieces deeply rooted in interior design trends of that time with focus on minimalism, functionality, and simplicity. To support these trends Murano artists and artisans returned to techniques of the past such as filigree, murrino, and lattimo. From that point onwards Murano saw continued exploration of styles and techniques striving to find a happy medium between the technical mastery and the outline, color, and decoration.

The resulting continuous innovation led to a rise in popularity and to multiple prizes at various international art exhibitions. Thanks to such prominent artists as Archimede Seguso, Ludovico and Laura De Santillana, Tobia Scarpa, Ercole Barovier, Fulvio Bianconi, Toni Zuccheri, Romano Chrivi, Giampaolo Martinuzzi, and Alfredo Barbini, Murano again became known as the glassblowing capital of the world. Murano now created the art trends as opposed to following them in the years past.

Hand-crafted Murano Glass Jewelry and artwork imported directly from Venice, Italy. We offer Murano Glass jewelry, accessories, vases, pendants, necklaces, rings, art glass, chandeliers and much more. Visit http://www.glassofvenice.com

Article Source: http://www.earticlesonline.com/Article/History-Of-Murano-Glass/505238

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