Crown Mint

See More About:    Flintlock Pistol        Great Flag        Valentines Day        

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_post_keywords' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 478

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_blank' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 634

Warning: Illegal string offset 'box_nofollow' in /home/pwelch15/public_html/ on line 642

This is a product assessment for Crown Mint. Many shoppers don"t straightaway think of eBay when it comes to Crown Mint, but in fact eBay is amongst the top three retailers in the nations marketplace. Be amazed with the items you will discover here at Buy Silver Coins.

**Please Enable JavaScript to Navigate Thru Our Listings**
**Click Here for Instructions**

1973 crown mint masonic temple ccm 64 proof silver art bar p1939

1 oz 999 silver vintage bar happy easter california crown mint art bar 8062

1 oz 999 silver flying eagle bell crown mint art round bar 9136

1 oz 999 silver happy valentines day crown mint art round bar 8064

1 oz 999 silver coin a rama city 1o th anniversary califcrown mint art 7241

10 oz 999 silver vintage bar crown mint art round bar m17

10 oz 999 silver vintage bar crown mint art round bar m16

vintage california crown mint happy birthday 1 oz silver art bar itemj2969

20 cornerstone mint 1 oz 999 silver roll haggai 28 revelation 318 crown

1 oz 999 silver the bodybuilder crown mint art round bar 8012

1982 crown mint happy valentines day ccm 8 silver art bar p1263

1985 happy valentines day variety silver art bar ccm 8v crown mint p1127

1986 crown mint happy valentines day ccm 56 silver art bar e4268

vintage 5 oz 999 california crown mint kit kat silver bar

crown mint seasons greetings ccm 98 silver art bar p1795

vintage california crown mint 10oz 999 fine silver bar old school crown logo

vintage 1974 california crown mint lincoln high relief silver 1oz 999

1983 california crown mint merry christmas 1 oz silver art bar itemj1906

vintage caifornia crown mint 1 oz art round 999 fine silver trade unit

1980 international trade unit flags eagle liberty bell crown mint 1oz 999 fine

1985 christmas santa sleigh crown mint 999 fine silver art bar 1 troy oz

1984 crown mint congratulations ccm 14v silver art bar e4456

1 oz 999 silver secretariat triple crown winner ussc mint art round bar h138

california crown mint 5 oz fine silver kit kat style bar

vintage california crown mint trade unit 1oz 999 fine silver art bar

1986 crown mint the bodybuilder ccm 72 silver art bar p0599

1999 gibraltar pobjoy mint crown jewels 925 silver 9999 gold 4 coin box set

5 grams crown mint sailboats vintage 999 silver bar rare not many around p21

colonial mint secretariat triple crown horse 1 oz 999 silver art bar

blackjack spinner crown mint super rare collectible 1 try ounce 999 fine silver

happy easter vintage california crown mint 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

happy easter vintage california crown mint 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

california crown mint merry christmas 1990 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

california crown mint happy birthday 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

california crown mint merry christmas 1986 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

california crown mint merry christmas 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

california crown mint 1986 merry christmas 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar

vintage crown mint bah humbug silver art bar 1oz 999 very scarce

1985 crown mint dragon 1 ounce 999 fine silver art round with engravable back

vintage california crown mint silver struck 5 oz bar 999

rare 1 ounce 999 silver art bar naked woman happy valentines day crown mint

3 silver bar lot 2 10 oz 1 5 oz california crown mint kit kat mg ccm 25 oz

wizard and stars one troy ounce silver round a retired crown mint design

california crown mint let freedom ring 1 troy oz 999 silver coin 2108

extruded kit kat california crown mint 10 oz 999+ silver bar

ccm california crown mint trade unit commercial 1980s vintage 999 silver coin

1984 crown mint congratulations silver art bar999 fine 1 oz read description

happy easter vintage crown mint 1 ounce 999 fine silver bar with silver bezel

1 troy oz 999 fine silver california crown mint international trade unit bar

california crown mint ccm 1oz 999 silver trade unit

vintage 1984 crown mint 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art round lotsp3

vintage 1984 crown mint 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art round lotsp4

vintage 1984 bah humbug crown mint 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art bar scrooge

vintage california crown mint high relief liberty bell silver trade 1 oz 999

rare california crown mint fractional trade unit 1oz 999 silver art bar

vintage california crown mint international trade unit 10 oz silver bar 999

rare vintage california crown mint ccm 50 troyoz 999 silver kit kat bar rare

068m rare crown mint holiday beauties 999 silver art bar happy easter 1 oz

1 oz 999 silver seasons greeting crown mint 5000 mintage art bar h157

crown mint holiday beauties 5000 minted new year nude 999 1 oz silver art bar

rare 1985 thank you crown mint 999 fine silver 1 troy oz art bar

1 oz 999 silver crown california mint art round bar h318

california crown mint silver trade unit 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art round m7

manger scene christmas 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art bar crown mint q8

1985 one oz silver bar order of the eastern star by crown mint engravable

999 fine silver let freedom ring liberty bell crown mint vintage 1 troy oz

1980 international trade unit variety silver art bar ccm 3v crown mint p1128

1980 international trade unit silver art bar ccm 3 crown mint p1129

1984 happy anniversary variety silver art bar ccm 21v crown mint p1121

baby birth one troy ounce 1 oz silver bar 999 crown mint

3 x 1 oz 999 silver eagle flag bell california crown mint art bar 1865

1986 merry christmas santa claus 1 troy oz 999 fine silver art bar crown mint

1982 billings montana crown mint brightest star in the big sky silver bar

1984 merry christmas crown mint 1 oz 999 fine silver art bar q8

1 rare duncan 11 california crown mint ccm 5 oz silver kit kat bar ingot vintage

5oz 999 silver barkit kat stylecalifornia crown mint lot 528657

nude woman one troy ounce 999 fine silver bar crown mint beauties

1981 two halves variety silver art bar ccm 5v2 crown mint p1126

1984 crown mint lowes rare coins ccm 90 silver art bar p1262

1984 graduation variety silver art bar ccm 11v crown mint p1122

vintage crown mint holiday beauties season greetings nude 1 ounce silver art bar

1984 graduation variety silver art bar ccm 11v crown mint p1123

1980 crown mint international trade unit ccm 3 silver art bar a1303

1980 era happy anniversary 1 oz silver engravable bar crown mint

1980 era especially for you 1 2 oz silver heart crown mint

california crown mint 1 troy oz 999 fine silver round vintage collectible coin

crown mint merry christmas 1 oz 999 fine silver art bar free shipping

jesus crowned with thorns sterling silver medal danbury mint life of jesus d4014

crown mint goat 1 2 troy oz 999 silver round scarce free shipping

1 ounce silver bar crown mint 999 fine silver seasons greetings holiday j

vintage california crown mint high relief liberty bell silver trade 1 oz 999

sweden estonia king eric xiv silver schilling 1568 reval mint crowned e lions

sweden estonia king eric xiv silver schilling 1564 reval mint crowned e lions

sweden estonia king eric xiv silver schilling 1565 reval mint crowned e lions

2012 isle of man 1 crown head of state 0925 silver proof coin only 3000 minted

1975 peru 200 soles silver crown mint state

christmas holiday lot 3 x 1 oz silver art bar crown mint silvertowne

rare crown mint vintage 1985 seasons greetings 2 oz holiday 999 silver bar

mw9666 france silver crown ecu 1763 l louis xv 1715 74 bayonne mint

crown mint holiday beauties happy new years 999 silver art bar

crown mint holiday beauties valentines day vintage 999 silver art bar

isle if man silver crown km42a pobjoy mint 1977 bu

commemorative crown royal mint coin 1981 wedding prince charles lady di cert no

1983 crown mint your wedding day 1 oz 999 silver art bar free shipping

spain 2 reales 1770 pj mint mark crowned m silver coin

extruded kit kat california crown mint 10 oz 999+ silver bar

great britain uk coins half crown 1946 george vi silver 0500 mint condition

2009 isle of man fall of berlin wall crown pobjoy mint ltd

order of the crown star to the cross 2nd class prussia 1861 american mint 0364

great britain 2010 bu 5 crown restoration of the monarchy in royal mint folder

great britain 2009 specimen 5 crown king henry viii in royal mint folder

great britain 2008 specimen 5 crown queen elizabeth i in royal mint folder

great britain 1937 kgvi silver crown better detail part mint lustre

3 silver bar lot 2 10 oz 1 5 oz california crown mint kit kat mg ccm 25 oz

1944 ecuador crown size silver coin five sucres mint mark mo mexico city unc

1982 happy mothers day crown mint ccm 999 fine silver 1 troy oz toned art bar

2 troy oz oklahoma federated liberty california crown mint 999 silver bin

vintage california crown mint happy birthday 1 oz silver art bar itemj2969

Didn"t find what your looking for? Search our real time inventory below...

Crown Mint

See More About:    Gold Layered        Ounce Coin        Proof Set        
Crown Mint's Spinner round

Archer imagery in Zechariah 9:11-17 in light of Achaemenid iconography.

The last six chapters of the book of Zechariah (chs. 9-14) present
numerous interpretive challenges. Though widely recognized as a product
of a postexilic context, these chapters, known collectively as Second
Zechariah, lack the clear chronological framework and explicit
historical signposts that are so evident in First Zechariah (chs. 1-8).
Therefore, when it comes to historical-critical approaches to Second
Zechariah, there is considerable debate and disagreement in the
scholarly literature. (1) In view of this impasse, an increasing number
of scholars have turned to alternative interpretive methods to advance
the study of Second Zechariah. (2)

Following in this trend, in this article I will explore how an
examination of ancient art, or iconography, can offer a fruitful way
forward in the interpretation of Second Zechariah. Iconography, as a
method for studying the Hebrew Bible, has received heightened attention
since the 1970s and since then has been pursued with a variety of
different investigative goals in view. (3) When expressly related to
biblical interpretation, iconographic exegesis typically attempts to
understand figurative language or metaphors in a biblical text in light
of a contextualized study of pictorial materials that convey related
motifs or originate in a similar setting. (4) By looking to visual media
as a communicative vehicle for expressing the worldviews and ideologies
of ancient cultures, "iconographic-biblical" studies can shed
new light on both the background and significance of certain literary

Applying this iconographic-biblical approach to the study of Second
Zechariah offers a compelling interpretive option for several reasons.
First, Zechariah 9-14 is replete with richly figurative language,
especially in relation to the role and function of the Divine Warrior in
restoring the people of Yehud (cf. Zechariah 9-10). As an interpretive
crux in Second Zechariah, the Divine Warrior motif, and its specific
expression in archer imagery, is in need of further analysis--an
analysis that can be greatly enriched through an understanding of how
archer imagery is employed in the visual vocabulary of Achaemenid
iconography. Second, a precedent has been set for studying postexilic
biblical texts in light of Achaemenid iconography. Brent A. Strawn and
Izaak J. de Hulster both have recently employed iconographic studies of
Persian art as a means of better understanding Third Isaiah. (5) Thus,
while iconographic approaches scarcely have been used with Second
Zechariah, this project builds on previous work that has engaged similar
corpora of texts and images. Finally, the recent publication of a vast
collection of Persian seal impressions is making it more feasible than
ever before to examine the visual media of the Achaemenid period. (6) In
both breadth of iconographic representation and specificity of
provenance, this collection of glyptic art offers exciting possibilities
for comparative analysis with postexilic biblical texts. (7)

With these possibilities in view, Zech 9:11-17 offers a compelling
test case for the iconographic exegesis of Second Zechariah.
Specifically, I will examine the literary imagery of the Divine Warrior
as archer in Zech 9:11-17 in light of archer imagery in Achaemenid minor
art (coins and seals). Following the procedure of Othmar Keel, I will
explore the literary imagery of archers in Zech 9:11-17 and in similar
contexts throughout the Hebrew Bible as a starting point for engaging
the appearance of this image in pictorial material. (8) While my primary
goal is not to prove a genetic relationship between the archer imagery
in Zechariah 9 and Achaemenid iconography, the possibility remains that
both biblical text and Achaemenid art reflect a similar conceptual
background in which archer imagery had come to be distinctly associated
with Achaemenid kings and kingship. Exploring this connection will
facilitate new interpretive perspectives on Zech 9:11-17.


One of the most prominent features of Zechariah 9 is the figurative
language surrounding Yahweh as Divine Warrior. While the motif of the
Divine Warrior is operative throughout the whole chapter, it is most
explicitly forwarded in vv. 13-14. There, Yahweh takes on the form of an
archer preparing for and engaging in battle. In v. 13, the archer's
weaponry--the bow and arrow--is symbolically depicted as Judah and
Ephraim, respectively. Yahweh readies his weaponry by bending Judah as a
bow and loading Ephraim as an arrow. Yahweh's actions are further
connected to the work of an archer preparing his personified weaponry
through the parallel phrase in v. 13b: "I will arouse [polel of
[TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]] your sons, O Zion." This same
verbal root is used later in Second Zechariah in reference to the Divine
Warrior preparing for battle: "Awake [qal of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE
IN ASCII]], O sword, against my shepherd" (13:7). Likewise, Hab 3:9
gives a similar description of a bow being prepared for action:
"You [Yahweh] brandished your naked bow, sated were the arrows at
your command" In both of these texts, Yahweh is depicted as an
archer readying his weapon by drawing back its string and loading an
arrow onto the bent bow. In v. 14, the Divine Warrior appears overhead,
shooting forth his arrows like lightning. (9) In this way, Yahweh's
arrows become a source of protection (v. 15a) and deliverance (v. 16a)
for the people against their enemies. This text concludes by describing
the results of the archer's actions: the people are protected from
attack (vv. 15a and 16a), gain victory over their enemies (vv. 15b and
16b), and experience a restoration of prosperity (w. 15c and 17).

This use of archer imagery in Zechariah 9 does not represent an
innovation in the Hebrew Bible. Elsewhere, bows are often found in the
hands of hunters (Gen 27:3; Isa 7:24) and warriors (Gen 21:20; Josh
24:12; 1 Sam 18:4; 2 Sam 1:22; 1 Kgs 22:34; Isa 5:28; Ezek 39:3; Hos
1:7). The bow can symbolize the military power of an individual or a
nation such that "cutting off" (Zech 9:10) or
"breaking" (Hos 1:5) the bow figuratively represents the
destruction of power. (10) Most often in the Hebrew Bible, the bow
symbolizes a threat against Israel. Bows are frequently associated with
Israel's enemies (Jer 46:9; 50:14) or the wicked within Israel (Ps
11:2). Likewise, when Yahweh brandishes the bow, it is more often than
not in order to punish Israel. For instance, in Lam 2:4 Yahweh is said
to have "bent his bow like an enemy" against Zion. Thus, the
archer and his weaponry typically represent a threat against Israel,
either through Yahweh aiming his bow at the unfaithful or through the
military advances of foreigners.

It is against this background that the archer imagery in Zechariah
9 comes into sharper relief. While the bow is an unambiguous symbol of
power throughout the Hebrew Bible, Zech 9:13-14 reorients how this power
is directed. As opposed to being in the hands of Israel's enemies,
the archer's weapons are now in the hands of Israel's defender
(Yahweh). Rather than being instruments by which God punishes Israel,
the bow and arrow become the means by which God protects and restores
Yehud. In the context of Zechariah 9, it is the Divine Warrior,
manifested as an archer, who initiates a period of restoration by
preparing his weapons for battle.

Situated in this context, the archery imagery of Zechariah 9
functions as a strong and important contrast to the tenor of other
prophetic material, such as First Zechariah or Second Isaiah. In the
wake of Cyrus's defeat of Babylon, these texts are marked by a
spirit of optimism that Yehud and its temple might be fully restored
under the tolerant auspices of Persian control. Within the relative
freedom offered by the pax Persica, First Zechariah downplays
militaristic visions (4:6) and under scores the role of Davidic
leadership in sustaining the community (6:9-15). Likewise, Second Isaiah
understands Cyrus as Yahweh's anointed (45:1), who will bring about
the end of the exile. However, when the promise of a full restoration
fails to materialize, a new trajectory of hope emerges. In this vision,
restoration is displaced to a future time when the Divine Warrior will
intervene. In contrast to other instances in the Hebrew Bible where God
arms human agents with an archer's weapons, in Zechariah 9 it is
Yahweh who takes up his bow and arrow on behalf of Israel. (11) Thus, it
is the divine archer, not a Davidic ruler or an anointed Persian, who
will bend the bow in order to restore the land (9:1-8), reestablish the
king (9:9-10), and rescue the people (9:11-17).

Although this textual analysis begins to clarify how archer imagery
functions in Zechariah 9, questions remain. For instance, outside of
interbiblical references, what is the source of the archer imagery in
Zechariah 9? In their commentary on Second Zechariah, Carol L. Meyers
and Eric M. Meyers look to the work of Paul D. Hanson to address this
question. Like Hanson before them, they contend that Zechariah 9
"draws upon ancient mythic materials that depict divine forces as
warriors, replete with weaponry" in order to envision the future
restoration of Yehud. (12) In their view, the fact that Zechariah 9
borrows ancient mythic elements "should be viewed as part of Second
Zechariah's general tendency to echo the language of authoritative
literature." (13) Hanson elaborates on a similar idea when he
suggests that Zechariah 9 follows Canaanite and Mesopotamian conflict
myth traditions and represents a "Divine Warrior Hymn." (14)
While Hanson and the Meyerses are certainly right to suggest that the
Divine Warrior motif is present in ancient mythic literature, their
explanation of how Zechariah 9 is textually dependent on these sources
lacks specificity. For instance, what sort of mechanism of textual
dependence must be at work in order to assume that ancient mythic
imagery from thirteenth-century Ugarit is "quite appropriate"
to Second Zechariah at the beginning of the fifth century? (15) In
addition to conflict myth texts, are there other sources of archer
imagery, perhaps nontextual, that might also inform the figurative
language of Zechariah 9?

By raising these questions, I do not mean to exclude the
possibility of a mythic background to the Divine Warrior imagery of
Zechariah 9. Indeed, as Hanson notes, it is hard not to hear echoes of a
mythic god of the storm motif, especially in Zech 9:14, where the archer
imagery is tied to meteorological phenomena. (16) Yet one wonders if the
type of textual dependence advocated by the Meyerses and Hanson is
precise enough to warrant being the only, or even the most compelling,
explanation of the source of archer imagery in Zechariah 9. In fact, the
greatest weakness of their conclusion is not that they are misguided in
noticing similarities between Zechariah 9 and ancient conflict myth
traditions, but that they overemphasize the importance of textual
sources in shaping the language of Zechariah 9. In contrast, I suggest
that the visual vocabulary of Achaemenid iconography provides an equally
persuasive conceptual background from which to understand the archer
imagery of Zechariah 9. Rather than abrogating all textual dependence on
conflict myth traditions, Achaemenid iconography presents additional
comparative evidence in ways that take seriously the communicative value
of pictorial material in the ancient Near Eastern world. In this way,
examining the iconographic background of archer imagery in Zechariah 9
will contribute to a more nuanced understanding of this biblical text
than would textual evidence alone.


The constellation of images associated with archers--bows, arrows,
quivers, and depictions of archers as hunters or warriors--appears in
all three major forms of Achaemenid art: monumental reliefs, coins, and
seals. Iconographic studies of archery imagery in each of these media
already have been carried out. (17) Archer imagery appears in various
stages of Persian art as well as in the pictorial material of other
ancient Near Eastern civilizations. Since space prohibits an exhaustive
treatment of the evolution of this artistic motif, I will narrow my
iconographic focus in two ways. First, I will center my attention on
examples of Achaemenid-period iconography that are closely associated
with the reign of Darius I (ca. 522-486 B.C.E.). It is in this time
period that the archery imagery first emerges as a distinctive feature
of Achaemenid iconography. In addition, while the dating of Second
Zechariah is far from certain, Darius's reign represents a
plausible chronological and political backdrop for the emergence of
Zechariah 9. (18) Second, since Zechariah 9 depicts Yahweh bending a bow
into a ready-to-shoot position, I will concentrate on constellations of
images in which an archer either has pulled back the bow's string
or is holding the bow in an outstretched hand with arrows or another
weapon (a spear or sword) in the other hand. These scenes depict the bow
being actively used in combat, or at least being readied for action, as
is also the case in the description of the bent bow and loaded arrow in
Zechariah 9. I will exclude iconographic scenes in which bows merely are
held in a resting position at the side of an individual (cf. Behistun
and Naqsh-i Rustam reliefs, and the original central panel of the
Apadana at Persepolis). (19)

In what follows, I will provide a brief iconographic description of
the archer imagery in four types of Achaemenid coins and a sampling of
seal impressions associated with administrative tablets at Persepolis.
By highlighting a strong representational correspondence between the
coins, found mostly in the western periphery of the empire, and the
seals, located at the administrative "heartland" of
southwestern Iran (Persepolis), I will suggest that these images reflect
a consistent and extensively deployed message of Achaemenid royal

Coinage: The Persian Archer Series

During the reign of Darius, new coinage was introduced in the
Achaemenid empire that effectively replaced the Lion-and-Bull decorated
Croeseids of the former Lydian kingdom. (20) The resulting Archer series
consisted of four related coin designs (figs. 1, 4-6), minted in gold
and silver. (21) Although the various types exhibit some variety, they
each depict a crowned archer dressed in a pleated, full-sleeved court
robe. The Archer series is traditionally regarded as an innovation of
Darius I. (22) It is widely believed that the figure on the coin
represents the king, even if it is not a specific portrait of Darius. In
response to earlier skepticism regarding whether the coins should be
understood as "art," Cindy L. Nimchuk and Margaret Cool Root
have both persuasively argued for their iconographic and communicative
value. (23) In fact, Nimchuk downplays the role of the coins as currency
and instead contends, "Darius took advantage of a readily available
form [coinage], in which economic and ideological values were already
mingled, and adapted it to his communicative purpose. His concern was to
use these small pieces of precious metal to emphasize his view of the
world and his role as Great King in that world." (24)


The Type I coin (fig. 1), found only in silver (sigloi), is often
thought to be the earliest version of the Archer series. (25) In these
coins, the archer figure appears in a half-length view, facing right in
profile. He grasps a bow in his left hand, which is slightly extended
and elevated. In his right hand are two arrows. He wears the crenulated
crown and the full-sleeved and pleated robe, both of which are
characteristic of the Achaemenid king. Although the bow remains undrawn,
the royal archer is poised for action. (26) Root has suggested that the
archer on the Type I coins is the first example of the royal portrait
being applied to coinage. (27) In this way, one of the most pervasive
iconographic representations of the Achaemenid king is as an archer
poised for battle.

The most intriguing characteristic of the Type I coin is its
cropped frame of reference in which the archer appears only from the
torso up. The depiction of the upper torso of an archer with drawn bow
is not unlike ninth-century Neo-Assyrian images of the deity (Assur)
rendered in half-length, emerging from a winged disk, and shooting an
arrow (fig. 2). In fact, Paul Naster has suggested that these
Neo-Assyrian images were a prototype for the Type I coins and, in light
of this view, he understands the figure on the coin not as the Persian
king but as the Persian god Ahura Mazda. (28) However, while there are
examples of Achaemenid monumental art such as the Behistun relief that
depict Ahura Mazda emerging out of a winged disk, the Persian god never
bears a drawn bow as Assur does. Recognizing that there is not often a
sharp distinction between representations of king and deity, it is
better to understand the Type I archer figure as one that blends royal
and divine imagery by depicting Darius with divine visual connotations.
(29) Therefore, in the coin emblem one would see a polysemic symbol in
which the earthly king was depicted in the posture of an Assyrian deity.

Another possible explanation of the cropped flame of reference is
that it represents what a king in a chariot would look like to
spectators. The Seal of Darius (fig. 3, p. 516) provides a compelling
example of this type of scene in Achaemenid glyptic art. (31) To the
right of an Old Persian inscription that reads "Darius, the great
king" is pictured a figure with a crenulated crown, in half-length
view, riding in a chariot on a hunt. This king, presumably Darius I, is
aiming a drawn bow at a rearing lion. Ahura Mazda emerges out of a
winged disk just above the chariot. While the presence of the drawn bow
in the Seal of Darius is more suggestive of the design of the Type II
coins (see fig. 4, p. 516), its cropped flame of reference captures the
same type of half-length view of the king as in the Type I coins.


In contrast to the Type I coins, the Type II coins (fig. 4) reflect
a major stylistic break. In this coin, as well as in Type III and IV
coins (figs. 5 and 6, p. 516), the archer is in full-length view and is
in a kneeling or running position. (32) The archer of the Type II coins
displays a more aggressive attitude: his sleeves are pushed back, the
lower hem of his garment is pulled up, the bow is extended out with his
left hand, and his right hand is drawing back the string of the bow in a
ready-to-fire position. An arrow is loaded on the string. The royal
archer wears a quiver on his back with three additional arrows. The king
looks intently in the direction of his aimed arrow and is poised for
action. In this sense, the Type II coins draw on motifs present in
Neo-Assyrian art of the archer as a hunter and protector. As will be
discussed more below, there is also a close link between the archer
representation in Type II coins and a variety of seal designs in the
Persepolis Fortification archive.





Seals: Archers in the Persepolis Fortification Archive

The Persepolis Fortification Seals (PFS) comprise a vast archive of
seal impressions left on administrative documents, found at Persepolis
and dating from the years 509-494. In this corpus, there are almost
twelve hundred different seal designs, many of which have not yet been
published. (33) In the forthcoming volume 2 of the PFS archive, which
will catalogue 367 seal images of humans or human activity, the most
commonly occurring motif is that of the archer. (34) This figure is
found in all the major carving styles and is most typically situated in
narrative contexts in which the archer either is hunting an animal or is
protecting an animal from a predator. While it is less certain that all
of the archers represent royalty, Garrison has suggested that the seals
develop concurrently with royal archer motifs in the coinage and
monumental reliefs and that all three vehicles of artistic expression
are responding to the same royal ideology. (35)

In his article "Archers at Persepolis," Garrison analyzes
in detail representational motifs in the various archer seals and draws
connections to the style and themes of the Type I and II coins. (36) As
Garrison notes, there is a strong stylistic connection between Type I
coins and a small group of seals rendered in the Court Style in the PFS
archive. Representative of this group of Court Style seals is PFS 0011*
(fig. 7), whose trilingual inscription names Darius. (37) This seal
demonstrates a carving style that emphasizes volume, which is especially
evident in the king's broad shoulder profile and massive pleated
sleeves. Similar features are found in the Type I coin pictured above.
The presence of these shared aesthetic and stylistic features suggests
that the coins and seals reflect similar ideological messages.


In many other seals, the archer is pictured as a composite
creature. Though the details vary, the composite creature always has the
head, arms, and torso (waist up) of a human, but the lower body (often
winged) of an animal (figs. 8a-c). In these seals, the archer, at least
in his human representation, appears in half-length view. While
composite creatures as archers are not found in Neo-Assyrian
iconography, the half-length view of the archer recalls the Neo-Assyrian
reliefs where Assur-asarcher emerges out of a winged disk. However,
Garrison believes that these seals more immediately recall the Type I
coins discussed earlier since in both cases only the upper torso of a
human archer is represented. Whereas the lower body of the archer is
cropped out of the Type I coin, the lower body of the archer in these
seals is that of an animal. For instance, PFS 0261* (fig. 9, p. 519)
shows the waist and upper torso of a human archer emerging from the back
of a bull-headed creature with wings and a scorpion's tail. The
archer has the string of the bow drawn back with his right hand and is
about to shoot a rearing lion. Like the archer in Type I coins, the
archer here wears the pleated, full-sleeved court robe and appears only
from the waist up. Though the figure does not wear a crown, several
characteristic features of kingship are present in the seal. These
stylistic features suggest that in seals like PSF 0261 the royal figure
is closely tied to archer imagery, just as in the Archer coins. Be it on
coins, which were circulated in the western periphery of Persia, or in
seals, found in Persepolis, the administrative center of the empire,
archer imagery was used pervasively to represent Achaemenid kingship in
minor art.




In addition to the seals related to the Type I coins, a significant
portion (44 percent) of the total number of archer scenes within the PFS
archive depict a kneeling archer, much like the Type II-IV coins. These
kneeling archers are rendered in a variety of styles and compositions
including the archer as protector shooting at a predator attacking
another animal as in PFS 0182 (fig. 10a), and the archer as hunter
shooting at an isolated animal as in PFS 0286 (fig. 10b). The former
(fig. 10a) shows a dynamic protection scene where the kneeling archer
aims his arrow over the head of a stag and in the direction of the
winged lion whose raised front limbs are stretched out toward a nearby
stag. The stag is looking back toward the archer, presumably in hopes of
being saved from the attack of the lion. The archer dominates the whole
visual frame of the seal impression. PFS 0286 (fig. 10b) depicts a
hunting scene, where a kneeling archer with bent bow, represented in a
broad, flat, and undetailed style, shoots at a caprid with large and
prominent antlers. The caprid appears to have been struck by an arrow in
its neck and seems to be in the process of falling to the ground upon
collapsed forelegs. Since no other predator is present, a hunting scene
seems to be in view.




It is not visually apparent that the kneeling archer in these seals
is a royal figure. Although the royal hunter motif is widely known in
Mesopotamian art, the Court Style that is often associated with the king
is very rare in kneeling archer scenes in the PFS archive. An exception
is PFS 0071* (fig. 11). It features a figure with court robe, paneled
inscription, and star and crescent, all of which are characteristic of
the Court Style. (38) The kneeling archer has his bow drawn with an
arrow pointing at a rearing lion. The scene suggests that the archer has
already used his weapon several times, since arrows impale both the
rearing lion and the one that lies at the archer's feet. In
Garrison's estimation, PFS 0071* "offers one of the closest
parallels, in pose and iconography, to the kneeling archer of type II
coinage." (39)



When this pictorial material is put in conversation with the
figurative language of Zech 9:11-17, several similarities emerge. For
instance, the description of Yahweh bending his bow and loading his
arrow in preparation for combat in 9:13 seems to suggest a battle pose
not unlike what is pictured on the Type II coins and many kneeling
archer seals. One might even detect a point of contact between how
Yahweh "arouses" his personified weaponry (9:13) and a
previously unmentioned seal, PFS 0848* (fig. 12, p. 521). In this seal,
Garrison proposes that the archer is not shooting at the composite
creature but, in fact, is shooting under its guidance and authority.
(40) Though Garrison does not elaborate on this suggestion, his view
might derive from the observation that, in contrast to other seals, the
composite creature in PFS 0848* is not rearing on its hind legs with
front legs near the face of its prey, as in PFS 0182 and PFS 0071*
(figs. 10a and 11, respectively). The posture of the creature in PFS
0848* suggests that it does not pose a threat to the archer or another
animal. If the creature is not an adversary, then perhaps one could
understand it as guiding, authorizing, or directing the archer and his


Yet differences also exist. For instance, one of the striking
aspects of Zechariah 9 is not just that Yahweh is depicted as an archer
but that Yahweh uses personified Judah as his divine bow (v. 13).
Achaemenid iconography does not seem to shed light on this aspect of the
biblical passage, and as a result further analysis and reflection are
still needed on this issue. In addition, while the Achaemenid
iconography accentuates the archer as a royal figure, Zech 9:11-17 lacks
explicit references to kingship or royalty. Nevertheless, since archer
imagery is so closely tied to ideas of kingship in Achaemenid
iconography, I contend that by portraying the Divine Warrior as an
archer ready for battle, the figurative language of Zechariah 9 might
well recall the visual vocabulary of Achaemenid archers and, with it,
the royal connotations implied by this artistic motif. If this is the
case, then Zechariah 9 seems to adopt and then adapt the Achaemenid
royal archer motif for its own message. That is, Achaemenid royal archer
iconography might evoke a conceptual frame of reference for imagining
Yahweh's military intervention on behalf of Yehud. In this view,
Zech 9:11-17 might be seen as a type of heroic combat scene that has a
conceptual resonance with Achaemenid seals that depict archers attacking
a predator in order to save a threatened animal (fig. 10a). Having
already described Yahweh preparing his bow for action (9:13), 9:15-16
depicts Yahweh protecting (hiphil of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII])
and saving (hiphil of [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) Yehud, "the
flock of his people," from danger. Just as the archer fells the
lions in PFS 0071*, so too does Yahweh subdue (qal of [TEXT NOT
REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) his enemies with a bow in Zech 9:15.

Proposing such a connection between Zech 9:11-17 and the vast
repertoire of archer images in Achaemenid iconography need not imply
that the biblical text verbally narrates the iconographic material or
that the iconographic material illustrates the biblical text. Rather,
text and image seem to draw on similar conceptual backgrounds with
regard to Achaemenid kings and kingship. Here I follow Strawn, who, in
his work on Third Isaiah and Persian monumental reliefs, proposes that
textual and iconographic data "may be understood as reflexes, one
textual and one artistic, of Persian imperial propaganda." (41) In
this sense, Zech 9:11-17 might be understood not as emerging from
Achaemenid archer seals or coins but as emerging with these pictorial
materials as reflexes of common Achaemenid notions of kings and

Pursuant to this hypothesis, I will conclude by returning to the
two questions I posed above regarding the implications of reading Zech
9:11-17 in light of Achaemenid iconography: (i) To what extent does
Achaemenid iconography provide a pervasive and distinct conceptual
background from which to understand the archer imagery of Zechariah 9?
and (ii) How does Zechariah 9 use for its own purposes the notions of
kingship constructed and deployed through archery imagery in Achaemenid
coins and seals?

Darius as Chief Archer: The Pervasive Presence of Royal Archer

Whether the author of Zechariah 9 had ever seen an Achaemenid seal
or coin is, of course, extremely difficult to prove. In my estimation,
it is more fruitful to suggest that Achaemenid seals and coins reflect
an ideology of kings and kingship that was pervasive in the thought
world of the Persian empire. Minor art, as represented in seals and
coins, would have had much to do with how such notions were disseminated
throughout the empire. In fact, as Strawn and others have noted, minor
art represented an economical and practical vehicle for deploying royal
propaganda. (42) In this view, archer imagery was particularly
effective, both because it was specifically associated with the king and
because it was widely distributed.

In Achaemenid minor art, the archer motif was the primary means of
representing Darius and, more generally, Achaemenid kingship. In fact,
archer imagery became intrinsically connected to notions of the Persian
king, especially in Greece and Asia Minor, where the coins were most
widely circulated. (43) For instance, Herodotus refers to the Achaemenid
coins as "darics" (Hist. 7.28), while Plutarch calls them
"archers" (Art. 20.4; Ages. 15.6). In a similar vein,
Aeschylus calls Darius the "chief archer" ([TEXT NOT
REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII]) (Pers. 556). The previously mentioned Seal of
Darius (fig. 3) provides another compelling example of a depiction of
the Persian king in the likeness of an archer. What is especially
remarkable is that the Seal of Darius was discovered in Thebes
(Egypt)--a considerable distance from Persepolis. Thus, in the western
periphery of the Achaemenid empire, the archer motif had become a type
of popular metonym for the Achaemenid king.

The situation in Palestine is less clear. In his study of
Palestinian glyptic art of the Persian period, Christoph Uehlinger notes
the presence of "persianisms" (i.e., iconographic motifs that
distinctly reference Achaemenid iconography) in heroic encounter and
heroic combat scenes found on some Palestinian seals and coins,
especially those from Samaria. (44) For instance, in several seals a
royal figure is depicted with pleated robe and crenulated crown (both of
which are distinct features of the Persian artistic tradition) in combat
with an animal or creature. Although Uehlinger admits that such
persianisms occur less frequently in the glyptic art of Palestine than
in that of Asia Minor, he nevertheless concludes that "as far as
miniature media are concerned, the image of the Persian royal
hero--which western provincials would easily identify either with the
king or with Achaemenid kingship in general--must have been the most
powerful and renowned among the visual expressions of Persian imperial
ideology in Palestine." (45) In another work, Uehlinger (with Keel)
notes that portrayals of the king as an armed (though not always with
bow and arrow) "royal hero" suddenly emerge in Palestinian
glyptic art near the end of the sixth century--precisely at the time
when the Archer coins would have been in circulation. (46) Martin G.
Klingbeil makes a similar observation in his study of Palestinian
glyptic art of the Persian period. (47) He describes a seal of the
Herakles figure (fig. 13), kneeling and in profile, with a bow in his
left hand and with his right hand raised as if holding a club or spear.
A quiver is attached at his waist. Klingbeil suggests not only that the
Herakles figure recalls an Achaemenid archer but that it more
specifically suggests "the identification of the Persian king and
Herakles." (48) From these examples, it seems that even though few
Archer coins have been discovered in Palestine, the iconographic motifs
that they display were known in this region.


According to Uehlinger, the numismatic evidence provides even more
compelling evidence that the heroic character of the Persian king was
widely known, even in Palestine. He points to provincial coinage from
fourth-century Samaria that reflects strong Persian influences.
Specifically, these coins display a royal figure engaged in a variety of
heroic encounter or combat scenes. Several of these coins show a
remarkable similarity to the Archer coins. In fact, Uehlinger concludes
that during the Persian period, "coinage became the most important
and most widely distributed medium for iconography in Palestine."

In light of the absence of Achaemenid monumental art in Palestine,
the successful dissemination of these iconographic motifs--and the
ideologies transmitted in them--depended in no small way on the
miniature size and mobility of the seals and coins. (50) For instance,
the writings on the Fortification Tablets bear witness to the fact that
the officials who used the seals often traveled to (or came from)
extreme ends of the Achaemenid empire. (51) What is more, Garrison
contends that seal images, as markers of administrative rank, social
status, and individual identity, "penetrated Achaemenid society
unlike any other type of artifact carrying complex visual imagery."
(52) The same can be said of the Archer coins. By mingling economic and
iconographic functions, the coins represented a form of wealth that
widely disseminated iconographic representations of the Achaemenid king
as an archer.

This evidence greatly raises the probability that, in the time
period when Second Zechariah was likely written, the association of
archers and Persian kings was a widely known concept throughout the
Achaemenid empire. (53) The specificity and pervasiveness of this
imagery make it no longer tenable to see the figurative language of
Zechariah 9 emerging solely from a textual dependence on ancient mythic
language. As a result, one must seriously question efforts to date
Zechariah 9 to the eighth century or earlier on the basis of the
presence of Divine Warrior imagery. If Zechariah 9 is to be dated
earlier than the rest of Second Zechariah, it must be done so on the
basis of other evidence.

The Divine Warrior in the Image of the Achaemenid King

If the royal archer motif found on coins and seals widely
disseminated Achaemenid imperial ideology, then what specific messages
were communicated? With regard to the half-length armed archer, several
messages appear to be at work. On the one hand, the half-length frame of
reference found in the Type I coin and in a variety of seal designs
might remind the viewer of what the king looked like while in an
elevated position, such as when he was seated on his throne or riding on
his chariot. As a result, this version of the archer might suggest the
upliftedness, both physically and metaphorically, of a victorious and
powerful king. In fact, Root has examined the iconongraphic
representation of the uplifted king in Achaemenid monumental art and has
found it to convey a vision of order, stability, and peace established
by the ascension of a new ruler. (54) While the notion that the
ascension of a new king would bring peace and stability was not unique
to Achaemenid thought, the Achaemenid iconographic depiction of this new
order was. Kings are often represented as being lifted up on the
voluntary support of their subjects. (55) These concepts are depicted in
the Behistun relief. In that narrative scene, Darius literally appears
as a king on high--his image appears on a rock face some three hundred
feet off the ground!--who, having just subdued various rebellions, has
victoriously laid claim to the kingship, and with it has ushered in a
new era of stability and peace. To be sure, this ideology was one that
Darius wished to disseminate. Near the end of the trilingual Behistun
inscription (DB [section]70), Darius calls for copies of the inscription
to be sent throughout the empire. (56) Papyrus fragments of an Aramaic
version of this message have been found and provide evidence that the
message of the Behistun inscription was indeed distributed. (57) When
viewed from the vantage point of the Behistun relief, the Type I coins
themselves might be understood as giving expression to Darius's
very wishes. Through their ability to merge iconographic representations
of Darius as both an archer armed for battle and as a king lifted up on
high, the half-length archer bears witness, in the form of minor art, to
a message writ large at Behistun: by virtue of his military power, the
Achaemenid king establishes the pax Persica.

On the other hand, the half-length armed archer image also seems to
recall the deity emerging as an archer from a winged disk. In this view,
another message materializes: the Achaemenid king, rendered with divine
visual connotations, is a legitimate, divinely authorized ruler. As
such, the king brings great prosperity to his people and, with it, the
obligation of loyalty. The nature of the coinage serves as an apt
vehicle for conveying such a message. The coins most likely functioned
as gifts given by the king in order to confer favor, status, and wealth
upon the recipient: to receive a daric was to benefit from the peace and
prosperity of the king's rule. (58) However, receiving the daric
also implied an obligation of loyalty. Those who received the coin
bearing the king's image were reminded that their prosperity
(represented by the economic value of the coin) was due to the military
prowess and legitimate rule of the king (represented by the image on the
coin). (59) By being inextricably bound to the Achaemenid symbol of
wealth, the image of the king was a reminder that with such wealth came
a demand for great fidelity. (60)

As for the kneeling archer motif, its more aggressive orientation
is suggestive of a related, but different, ideological message. In the
kneeling archer figure the images of hunter and protector have merged in
the person of the king. As a result, the king is depicted as both an
aggressor against his enemies and a protector of those in need. (61)
This royal hunter/protector motif might make sense of Darius's
focus on consolidating the empire during his reign. The success of the
kingdom rested not on past victories alone but on the ongoing efforts of
the king to repeal threats and provide protection for those loyal to his
kingship. Here again, the ideological impact of this message is
heightened by the role and function of the coins. By putting the
Achaemenid royal portraiture on what was a form of currency not
previously used in Persia, the king demonstrates a type of cultural
consolidation: as a means of reasserting his power, the king adopts and
adapts foreign cultural forms (coins) to suit his ideological interests.
In displaying himself in an aggressive hunting pose, the king can
literally be seen as aiming his bow at anyone who should happen to
possess an Archer coin. Thus, Archer coins are both gift and threat: the
bent bow of the king promises both to protect those loyal to the throne
and to punish those who threaten the stability of the empire. The pax
Persica was, as it were, a two-sided coin.

Taken together, the half-length armed archer and kneeling archer as
hunter/ protector communicate ideologies that affirm notions of the king
as a legitimate ruler who consolidates the kingdom through power,
prosperity, and peace. A version of this ideology might well be
operative in Zechariah 9. There, Yahweh appears on high as the
victorious archer (v. 14a) who saves his people (v. 16a) and restores
peace and prosperity to the land (v. 17). As with Darius, Yahweh's
military power leads to the peaceful enthronement of a new king (vv.
9-10). Recognizing the fingerprint of Achaemenid imperial ideology on
Zechariah 9 might provide a helpful lens through which to view the
enigmatic images of vv. 9-10. Anticipating Yahweh's victory, these
verses describe the new king as legitimate and victorious. He assumes
his throne in peace (riding on the back of a donkey, not a war horse;
cf. v. 9) and announces peace to the nations (v. 10). Read in light of
Achaemenid archer iconography, Zechariah 9 seems to take up the
Achaemenid ideology of a victorious and legitimate king who ushers in
peace and stability as a framework for describing Yahweh's heroic
acts in delivering his people. This line of reasoning might help to
account for the odd juxtaposition of nonviolent imagery in vv. 9-10 and
the warrior motif in the surrounding verses: Yahweh's might, like
Darius's might, effectively brings about a peaceful and stable
reign (v. 10a-b); and Yahweh's dominion, like Darius's
dominion, "shall be from sea to sea, and from the river to the ends
of the earth" (v. 10c).

How might these observations help to inform an understanding of
Zechariah 9? In contrast to Second Isaiah, it is clear that the Jewish
community in Yehud no longer looked to an anointed Persian king to bring
about the restoration of their land and their temple (cf. Isaiah 42).
Instead, the community looked to Yahweh, envisioned as Divine Warrior,
to usher in a new age of peace and prosperity--apax Judaea. However,
just because the Jewish community no longer hoped for deliverance by an
Achaemenid king did not mean that they ceased dreaming of deliverance
through the imagery of Achaemenid kingship. Thus, even as Zechariah 9
seems to look to the future for the restoration of Yehud, the conceptual
framework of its prophetic imagination remains rooted in its immediate
present. Depicted as an archer, Yahweh, not unlike the Achaemenid archer
king, ushers in a reign of peace, stability, and prosperity on a cosmic
level that the Achaemenid kings sought to establish in their earthly

I would like to thank Brent A. Strawn and Joel M. LeMon for their
invaluable guidance and feedback on earlier drafts of this article. I am
also indebted to Mark B. Garrison for generously giving me access to an
earlier draft of his now published article, "Archers at Persepolis:
The Emergence of Royal Ideology at the Heart of the Empire" in The
World of Achaemenid Persia: History, Art and Society in Iran and the
Ancient Near East (ed. John Curtis and St. John Simpson; New York: I. B.
Tauris, 2010), 337-59 (= Garrison 2010 in captions).


Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322

(1) Carol L. Meyers and Eric M. Meyers, Zechariah 9-14: A New
Translation with Introduction and Commentary (AB 25C; New York:
Doubleday, 1993), 15. Illustrative of this disagreement is the lively
and sustained criticism surrounding Paul D. Hanson's The Dawn of
Apocalyptic (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975).

(2) Many of these alternative approaches foreground literary
considerations, especially as they relate to the density of intertextual
references in Second Zechariah.

(3) The 1972 publication of Othmar Keel's Die Welt der
altorientalischen Bildsymbolik und das Alte Testament: Am Beispiel der
Psalmen (Zurich: Benziger, 1972) is widely considered a pioneering
contribution to the application of iconography to biblical studies.
Keel's original work has since been translated into English and
reprinted (The Symbolism of the Biblical World: Ancient Near Eastern
Iconography and the Book of Psalms [trans. Timothy J. Hallett; New York:
Seabury, 1978; repr. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 1997]) (= Keel 1997
in captions). More recently, LeMon has provided a helpful and concise
typology of iconographic studies that categorizes three approaches
according to their underlying motivations: iconographic-artistic,
iconographichistorical, and iconographic-biblical ("Iconographic
Approaches: The Iconic Structure of Psalm 17," in Method Matters:
Essays on the Interpretation of the Hebrew Bible in Honor of David L.
Petersen [ed. LeMon and Kent H. Richards; Atlanta: Society of Biblical
Literature, 2009], 143-68). In this essay, I follow what LeMon calls the
iconographic-biblical approach.

(4) LeMon, "Iconographic Approaches," 150.

(5) Strawn, "'A World Under Control': Isaiah 60 and
the Apadana Reliefs from Persepolis" in Approaching Yehud: New
Approaches to the Study of the Persian Period (ed. Jon L. Berquist;
SemeiaSt 50; Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2007), 85-116; and
de Hulster, Iconographic Exegesis and Third Isaiah (FAT 2/36; Tubingen:
Mohr Siebeck, 2009).

(6) For an excellent introduction to the archive of seals in the
Persepolis Fortification Tablets, see Mark B. Garrison, "Achaemenid
Iconography as Evidenced by Glyptic Art: Subject Matter, Social
Function, Audience and Diffusion" in Images as Media: Sources for
the Cultural History of the Near East and the Eastern Mediterranean, 1st
Millennium BCE (ed. Christoph Uehlinger; OBO 175; Fribourg:
Universitatsverlag; Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2000), 115-63
(= Garrison 2000 in captions).

(7) In his essay about the influence of Persian iconographic motifs
on Palestinian seals, Christoph Uehlinger concludes that glyptic
evidence should be considered when interpreting the books of Ezra and
Nehemiah and "other literature of Persian period Palestine"
("'Powerful Persianisms' in Glyptic Iconography of
Persian Period Palestine" in The Crisis of Israelite Religion:
Transformation of Religious Tradition in Exilic and Post-Exilic Times
[ed. Bob Becking and Marjo C. A. Korpel; OtSt 42; Leiden/Boston: Brill,
1999], 179).

(8) Othmar Keel, The Song of Songs (trans. Frederick J. Gaiser; CC;
Minneapolis: Fortress, 1994), 27.

(9) The word "arrow" is missing, though it surely is
implied by the use of how and lightning. For other instances where
arrows and lightning are explicitly connected, see 2 Sam 22:15; Ps
144:6; and Wis 5:21.

(10) Othmar Keel, "Der Bogen als Herrschaftssymbol: Einige
Unveroffentlichte Skarabaen aus Agypten und Israel zum Thema 'Jagd
und Krieg,'" in Studien zu den Stempelsiegeln aus Palastina/
Israel, Band 3, Die Fruhe Eizenzeit (ed. Othmar Keel, Menakhem Shuval,
and Christoph Uehlinger; OBO 100; Fribourg: Universitatsverlag;
Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1990), 27-66.

(11) For instance, in 2 Sam 22:35 David boasts that God
"trains my hands for war, so that my arms can bend a bow of
bronze." Likewise, in Isaiah 45 Cyrus, Yahweh's anointed, is
armed by Yahweh in order to deliver the exiled Israelites.

(12) Meyers and Meyers, Zechariah, 175. These authors explicitly
follow Hanson, who explains that in Zechariah 9 the "visionaries
drew upon archaic Divine Warrior material" (Hanson, Apocalyptic,

(13) Meyers and Meyers, Zechariah, 150.

(14) Hanson, Apocalyptic, 302, 316.

(15) Meyers and Meyers, Zechariah, 150.

(16) Hanson, Apocalyptic, 322.

(17) For monumental reliefs, see chs. 4 and 5 in Margaret Cool
Root, The King and Kingship in Achaemenid Art: Essays on the Creation of
an Iconography of Empire (Acta Iranica 19; Textes et memoires 9; Leiden:
Brill, 1979), 162-226. For coins, see Cindy L. Nimchuk, "The
'Archers' of Darius: Coinage or Tokens of Royal Esteem?"
Ars Orientalis 32 (2002): 55-79; Root, "The Persian Archer at
Persepolis: Aspects of Chronology, Style and Symbolism," REA 91
(1989): 33-50; and eadem, "From the Heart: Powerful Persianisms in
the Art of the Western Empire," in Asia Minor and Egypt: Old
Cultures in a New Empire. Proceedings of the Groningen 1988 Achaemenid
History Workshop (ed. Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg and Amelie Khurt;
Achaemenid History 6; Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor her Nabije
Oosten, 1991), 1-29. For seals, see Garrison, "Achaemenid
Iconography," 115-63; and idem, "Archers at Persepolis."

(18) The dating of Second Zechariah remains a disputed issue. While
some scholars place Second Zechariah as early as the eighth century and
others as late as the Hellenistic period, there is a growing consensus
that Second Zechariah can be situated somewhere between the late sixth
century and the first half of the fifth.

(19) Although these scenes have less in common with the archer
imagery of Zechariah 9, Root's analysis of the bow as a symbol of
power and victory in Achaemenid monumental reliefs (King and Kingship,
162-226) serves as a critical background to my investigation.

(20) After Cyrus II's defeat of Croesus in 547, the Lydian
kingdom, along with its minting of coins, was turned over to Persian
control. It appears that the Persians continued minting the Croeseids
for a time, but by the first decade of Darius I's reign, Type I and
II Archer coins were in circulation (Nimchuk, "'Archers'
of Darius," 58).

(21) For an excellent overview of the Archer series coins,
including line drawings and photographs, see David Stronach, "Early
Achaemenid Coinage: Perspectives from the Homeland," Iranica
Antiqua 24 (1989): 255-83 (= Stronach 1989 in captions).

(22) Nimchuk, "'Archers' of Darius," 59.

(23) Root, "Persian Archer at Persepolis"; and Nimchuk,
"'Archers' of Darius."

(24) Nimchuk, "'Archers' of Darius," 71.

(25) The chronology and relative order of the four types of Archer
coins were established in large part by Sydney P. Noe (Two Hoards of
Persian Sigloi [Numismatic Notes and Monographs 136; New York: American
Numismatic Society, 1956]) and Edward Robinson ("The Beginnings of
Achaemenid Coinage," NumC 18 [1958]: 187-93).

(26) That the bow remains undrawn has led some to see a connection
between these repre sentations and the ceremonial scenes of the Persian
monumental reliefs (Nimchuk, "'Archers' of Darius,"
74-75; and Stronach, "Early Achaemenid Coinage" 265). However,
unlike the monumental reliefs, the royal archer in the coins has his bow
lifted up (not down by his side) with the body of the bow facing outward
and is grasping in his right hand two arrows. The presence of the arrows
and the raised, outward-facing bow suggests that the bow is being
prepared for use.

(27) Root, "From the Heart," 17.

(28) Paul Naster, "De la representation symbolique du dieu
Assur aux premiers types monetaires achemenides," in Compte rendu
de l'onzieme Rencontre assyriologique internationale (Leiden:
Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten, 1964), 10-11.

(29) Root, "Persian Archer at Persepolis," 47.

(30) In an article concerning the depiction of heroic royal figures
in Persian glyptic art, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre argues that these
figures are not to be understood as establishing the divine nature of
the Persian king ("Imperial Style and Constructed Identity: A
'Graeco-Persian' Cylinder Seal from Sardis," Ars
Orientalis 27 [1997]: 105).

(31) Dominique Collon, First Impressions: Cylinder Seals in the
Ancient Near East (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988), 129 (=
Collon 1988 in captions).

(32) Type III and IV coins are often thought of as typological
relatives of the Type II coin. For this reason, and because they are
typically dated to after Darius's reign, they are often treated
separately from the Type I and II coins.

(33) To date, only the first volume of the PFS archive has been
published (Mark B. Garrison and Margaret Cool Root, Seals on the
Persepolis Fortification Tablets, vol. 1, Images of Heroic Encounter
[OIP 117; Chicago: Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, 2001]).
For an introduction to the archive as a whole, see Garrison and Root,
Persepolis Seal Studies: An Introduction with Provisional Concordance of
Seal Numbers and Associated Documents on Fortification Tablets 12087
(Achaemenid History 9; Leiden: Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije
Oosten, 1998).

(34) Garrison and Root, Seals on the Persepolis Fortification
Tablets, vol. 2, Images of Human Activity (OIP; Chicago: Oriental
Institute, University of Chicago, forthcoming). Several composite
drawings from this volume have been provided for advance use in this
article courtesy of Garrison, Root, and the Persepolis Seal Project.

(35) Garrison, "Seals and the Elite at Persepolis: Some
Observations on Early Achaemenid Persian Art," Ars Orientalis 21
(1991): 1-29.

(36) See Garrison, "Archers at Persepolis."

(37) Here and elsewhere, a raised asterisk after the catalogue
number (i.e., PFS 0011*) indicates an inscribed seal. Fewer than 10
percent of the seals in the Persepolis Fortification archive are

(38) The inscription in PFS 0071* is in Aramaic, which, in
comparison to Elamite or trilingual inscriptions, is rare in the PFS
archive. I follow previous readings (see George G. Cameron, Persepolis
Fortification Tablets [OIP 65; Chicago: University of Chicago Press,
1948], 92) in rendering the inscription as HTM'/'RTDR/ZYRB,
"The Seal of Artadar who (is) chief." In contrast, Garrison
reads HTM / RTBR / [... ] ("Archers at Persepolis," 359 n.

(39) Garrison, "Archers at Persepolis," 354.

(40) Garrison, "Achaemenid Iconography," 136.

(41) Strawn, "'World Under Control,'" 114.

(42) Ibid., 112. For a more general treatment of the role of minor
art as communicative vehicles, see the volume edited by Uehlinger
(Images as Media).

(43) For a fuller discussion of the circulation patterns of darics
and sigloi, see Ian Carradice, "The 'Regal' Coinage of
the Persian Empire" in Coinage and Administration in the Athenian
and Persian Empires: The Ninth Oxford Symposium on Coinage and Monetary
History (ed. Carradice; BAR International Series 343; Oxford: British
Archaeological Reports, 1987), 73-95.

(44) Uehlinger, "Powerful Persianisms," 172.

(45) Ibid., 160.

(46) Keel and Uehlinger, Gods, Goddesses, and Images of God: In
Ancient Israel (trans. Thomas H. Trapp; Minneapolis: Fortress, 1998),
376 (= Keel and Uehlinger 1998 in captions).

(47) Martin G. Klingbeil, "Syro-Palestinian Stamp Seals from
the Persian Period: The Icono graphic Evidence," JNSL 18 (1992):
95-124 (= Klingbeil 1992 in captions).

(48) Ibid., 109-10. Keel and Uehlinger also draw attention to the
same seal, but they instead describe it as one of several "new
motifs [that] entered the Phoenician repertoire from Greece" (Gods,
Goddesses, 380).

(49) Uehlinger, "Powerful Persianisms," 175.

(50) Garrison, "Achaemenid Iconography," 153.

(51) Ibid., 156.

(52) Ibid., 155.

(53) Garrison suggests that evidence from seals and coins indicates
"the powerful hold that the shooting archer imagery had in the
visual repertoire in south-western Iran in the late sixth century"
("Archers at Persepolis," 355).

(54) Root, King and Kingship, 131-61.

(55) For instance, see the tomb facade at Naqsh-i Rustam and the
east doorjambs of the Central Building of Darius.

(56) DB [section] 70 reads: "King Darius says: By the grace of
Ahura Mazda this is the inscription which I have made. Besides, it was
in Aryan script, and it was composed on clay tablets and on parchment.
Besides, a sculptured figure of myself I made. Besides, I made my
lineage. And it was inscribed and was read off before me. Afterwards
this inscription I sent off everywhere among the provinces. The people
unitedly worked upon it" (Leonard William King and Reginald
Campbell Thompson, The Sculptures and Inscriptions of Darius the Great
on the Rock of Behistun in Persia: A New Collation of the Persian,
Susian, and Babylonian texts, with English Translations [London: British
Museum, 1907]).

(57) For the text, translation, and introduction to the Aramaic
papyri version of the Behistun inscription, see Arthur Ernest Cowley
(Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth Century B.C. [Oxford: Clarendon, 1923],

(58) In her article "'Archers' of Darius,"
Nimchuk follows Peter Vargyas ("Darius I and the Daric
Reconsidered," Iranica Antiqua 35 [2000]: 33-46) in persuasively
arguing for the communicative and ideological function of the Archer
coins. This view is in contrast to Pierre Briant and others who persist
in seeing the coins functioning primarily as a means of economic payment
and exchange (From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire
[trans. Peter T. Daniels; Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2002]).

(59) Nimchuk, "'Archers' of Darius" 66.

(60) Heleen Sancisi-Weerdenburg, "Gifts in the Persian
Empire" in Le tribut dans l'Empire perse: Acres de la Table
Ronde de Paris 12-13 decembre 1986 (ed. Pierre Briant and Clarisse
Herrenschmidt; Travaux de l'Institut d'etudes iraniennes de
l'Universite de la Sorbonne nouvelle 13; Paris: Peeters, 1989),

(61) Nimchuk, "'Archers' of Darius" 66.

If you are looking for a different item here"s a list of related products on Buy Silver Coins, please check out the following:

See More About:    All Silver        State Quarter        Ring Air        

Other Items People View After These Listings About